22 Personal Communication

Examples of personal communications are private letters, emails, personal interviews, lectures, telephone calls. They are essentially irretrievable.

Use exact dates, and the person’s initials. Personal communications appear in the text only and  do not go in the reference list.

  1. T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001)
  2. (V.-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998)

(American Psychological Association,  2010, p. 179)


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